The lighting system and its proper design is the most important moment of finishing. Convenience, comfort and quality of life in a house or apartment depend on competent lighting. With the help of competent lighting, you can also zone the premises, hide the flaws and emphasize the advantages of the rooms.
It is important to think over the lighting to the smallest detail before repairing or rearranging. Decide on the design of the rooms and their purpose, then the light will work for convenience and harmony for a long time.
Multi-level lighting: main light and local
Modern rules and recommendations state that lighting must certainly be multi-level, solving several different problems. These levels are usually divided into the following types:
general. As the name implies, it is used to illuminate the entire room as a whole, without dividing into separate zones. It was used by our grandfathers, grandmothers and parents. The classic of this solution is a powerful chandelier with several lamps in the center of the ceiling. Usually it is also an interior accent at the same time. Now, instead of one chandelier, a grid of built-in lights is often used. These can be different versions of spotlights, including those with variable directionality, or ceiling lights built into suspended ceilings;
directional or zonal . It is also called a worker, because it is often used to illuminate a certain place. For example, they illuminate the kitchen work area by placing lighting elements under the shelves. Or they make additional overhead lighting near desks in addition to table lamps. Zonal lighting also includes lighting that divides the room into different functional zones. For example, such an option is possible in a kitchen-dining room or a bedroom combined with an office;
decorative . These lighting elements are needed in order to place design accents. These include pendant lamps, sconces and floor lamps.
Different types of lighting for each room
Of course, this will sound “Captian”, but the lighting in each room and area of \u200b\u200byour house should be different.
In the kitchen , for example, it is important to arrange zonal illumination of the dining area and work surface. In small Khrushchev kitchens, the lighting of the dining area is usually also general lighting at the same time. For a kitchen area of 6-9 square meters. m is enough.
If you are lucky with a large kitchen, then you should make a separate general lighting, for example, using spotlights . And highlight the dining area with a beautiful chandelier for zoning. The working area can be illuminated with built-in lights or use LED strip fixed at the bottom of the shelf. In order for the light from the LED strip to become softer and more diffuse, it is worth using a diffuser, for example, a box with a matte transparent side.
In the living room on one side, a bright general light is not necessary, as they rest here. But on the other hand, guests are received in it, so solemnity does not hurt. In addition to the general light in the living room, additional interior lighting elements, such as sconces, are needed. With their help, decorative lighting is created that accentuates details, decorates the interior and creates a cozy atmosphere.
Corridors and hallways also require general lighting and zoning. Additionally, they illuminate the entrance area, where more light is needed to make it convenient to dress and put on shoes.
In addition to the general light in the corridors, lighting is made at floor level. It gives a soft light at night, so that it is convenient to move around the house or apartment, and the bright light does not hurt the eyes. For a large hallway, it is important to provide for more and the possibility of turning on / off the light from different ends. This is done with the help of switches.
For the bedroom , you should choose soft light that does not strain your eyes. Here, the division into zones is a dim lamp on the nightstand or wall near the bed, as well as the illumination of mirrors or cabinets. If the bedroom also has a work area, it is necessary to provide for its separate lighting.
By a similar principle, children’s room lighting is built . Proceed from the fact that there is not enough light in the nursery. Therefore, it is necessary to make general light and illumination of work areas, especially training ones. In it, firstly, a table lamp is required , and, secondly, overhead lighting, for example, using a ruler or grid of spotlights.
When planning lighting in the house, it is important to decide on the type, base, power, color temperature and color rendering. With a base, everything is simple – buy lamps for the specific lamps that you have chosen. The main types of socles are E27 , E14 , E40, GX53 , G4 , GU10 , GU 5.3 , etc.
With power, or, to put it correctly, with brightness, it’s more difficult. Everyone is used to evaluating it by incandescent lamps. But LED lamps have much less power. The fact is that we do not need the power of light bulbs as such, but their luminous flux in terms of the watt of energy consumed. Therefore, on packages with LED lamps, as well as fluorescent and halogen lamps, they also indicate the equivalent power of incandescent lamps.
For an approximate calculation of the number of lamps, they proceed from the approximate norm of 20 W per square meter.
To fully illuminate the bathroom , one or two devices are enough for a power equivalent to 40–60 W of incandescent lamps. The living room will require 5-6 or more light sources for a total power equivalent to 300-360 watts. For a kitchen in Khrushchev, 100-150 W is enough, but for a large one you will need the same amount of power as for the living room.
The bedroom usually has enough lighting fixtures with a total power of 200 watts. But for a nursery, you should take brighter bulbs so that their total power is about 300 watts. For example, three lamps ERA LED smd A60-11w-840-E27 or eight ERA LED smd P45-5w-827-E27 .
You can calculate the number of lamps, focusing on their luminous flux, measured in lumens. In this case, the number of lamps is calculated by the formula E (lx) = F (lm) / S (sq.m), where E is the illuminance, measured in lux (lx), F is the luminous flux (lamp luminosity), measured in lumens , and S is the area of the room.
For bedrooms and living rooms, illumination of 150 lux is required, for children – 200 lux, for offices – 300-400 lux, and for bathrooms – 50 lux. Accordingly, for a children’s room with an area of 15 square meters. m requires lighting of 3000 lm. In this case, you can choose, for example, four Gauss LED E27/A60/10w or six Gauss LED E27/7w Dimmable .
Another very important parameter that directly affects your well-being, feelings and mood is color temperature. There are three main types of lamps:
with warm white light (from 2700 to 3500 K). This light is similar to the light from incandescent lamps. It is soft and pleasing to the eye. Good for all living spaces;
with neutral white light (from 3500 to 5300 K). Widely used for lighting work areas and rooms. In offices, they make just such a light, as it meets the standards for illumination of workplaces. At home in apartments, it is less common. 4000 K lamps are bought for installation in kitchens or workplaces, for example, in a study corner;
with cold white light (above 5300 K). Used only in work areas. Often this light is colloquially referred to as “operational”, since it is there that it is used most often.
Interesting lighting solutions
Modern lighting devices are good because they can be installed anywhere. Spotlights, LED strips – all this great variety allows you to implement the most unexpected and interesting solutions.
For example, you can make a mirror illuminate by placing a lighting fixture behind it. As a result, the surrounding space is illuminated with diffused light, rather than a contrasting, aging reflection. Usually, LED strips are used for this or mirrors with already built-in diodes are purchased.
Another option for using tape is to illuminate a multi-level ceiling in a bedroom or living room. The option looks good in combination with spotlights located in the right places.
By the way, spotlights can be used not only for zoning, but also as decorative lighting. See how the living room is illuminated niche with a picture placed in it! In fact, lighting in this case is its additional element.
And these are just a few examples of what can be done with different lighting fixtures. Fantasize, choose the right lighting – you will get something beautiful and interesting.